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
ارشيف

Non-Traditional War… ISIS And The chemical Weapon

gas-ISIS (2)
War on the organization of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant “Daash” represents an extremely important regional and international interest, so that the threat of Daash is not only confined to the composition of a large center for extremism in A critical area of the Middle East and may extend to threaten the flow of energy exports and the global economy , but this region could be more threatened with attempts of Daash in possession of chemical weapons and its use in combat operations in Iraq. Daash is constantly tried to seize sites that contain materials used in the manufacture of chemical weapons. Daash has experts and technicians who are specialized in dealing with it, and forcing teachers of Mosul University of specialists in the chemical sciences to work with them .
The credibility of this analysis is acquired from military sites in which Iraqi forces was able to expel Daash from it as it was discovered in those locations factories used to conduct experiments on chemical weapons, and also during the detection , they managed to discover that Daash stored amount of modified missiles, which contain toxic substances. And thus chemical attacks of Daash may be of limited impact and wide repercussions , and is represented by break through the military headquarters, lifting the military siege on its trapped elements , and the targeting of hostile regions, and vital installations. In this paper we will discuss in general the definition of chemical weapons and identify its historical types and uses , and in particular attempts of the state organization in Iraq and the Levant “Daash” to have chemical weapons and its repercussions on Iraq and ways to confront it.
I. chemical weapons
1-chemistry – language: Name attributed to chemistry, a science dealing with the study of the properties of elements and compounds, and the laws that govern their interactions, particularly when they are united together : composition or clearing from each other: the analysis.
2-chemical weapons – idiomatically: are toxic compounds are configured from a natural or industrial materials to achieve the unethical objectives , and have devastating effects on human health and the environment that have been used in it, and be of a temporary or permanent effects.
And chemical weapons in general are weapons of mass destruction, which its list include both biological and nuclear weapons, but some military experts believe that chemical weapons Despite the gravity should not be classified in the list of weapons of mass destruction.
Weapons used in chemical warfare can be divided to “toxic chemical agents” and fighting gas ” ranging its the effectiveness and impact on humans, and “herbicidal materials for the plant” and “incendiary bombs”. several means can be used to deliver these weapons to its targets, as guns , mortars and aircraft bombs, rockets and spraying from the air, mines, grenades and flamethrowers.
The functions of the chemical weapons are the impact on human opponent forces, impeding the opponent and prevent him from benefiting from important areas and sites, impeding the advance of the opponent , hit targets in the deep of the hostile front , psychological impact and weaken the morale in the ranks of the opposing forces, the impact on the environment for the service of friendly forces and its plans .
And of these weapons:
– Mustard gas: is the chemical liquid element produces of a dangerous steam , and cause burns and ulceration of the exposed skin . Mustard hurts the respiratory tract when one breaths , causing vomiting and diarrhea if swallowed, and inflicted damage to eyes, mucous membranes, lungs, skin and organs in which the blood is generated .Iraq used mustard gas many times between 1983 and 1988. The most serious long-term effects occurred because of the fact that mustard gas is causing cancer and genetic changes. There is no cure.
– Tabun: liquid ranges between non color and-brown color and a mischievous agent of the nerve and a non-permanent effect such as insecticides. Symptoms include – depending on the period of exposure – blurred vision, difficulty of breathing, convulsions of muscle, sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, convulsions , respiratory failure, which leads to death. The current Iraqi regime has transferred this chemical element and used it .
– Cyanide: very toxic chemical factor affecting the ability of the body’s use of oxygen in the event of breathe or swallow or touch human skin. The symptoms include difficulty of breathing, convulsions, coma, and possible death.
– Sarin: liquid or vapor has no color. Symptoms include, which are subject to exposure, blurred vision, difficulty of breathing, convulsions of muscle, sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, convulsions, respiratory failure, which leads to death .Prolonged exposure can lead to the death as it was shown when Sarin gas attack carried out by the group “Aum Shinrikyo” in 1995 at the train station in Tokyo. Iraq has admitted producing between 100 and 150 metric tons of sarin gas, and turned it into a weapon when packaged in artillery bombs, rockets of 122 millimeters, and aerial bombs.
– VX: oily liquid has no color and no smell and has a lasting effect and is considered among the most toxicological materials that have been produced so far. VX Can in air-borne to kill in minutes , but the main absorb be through the skin. Symptoms include blurred vision, difficulty breathing, convulsions of muscle, sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, convulsions, respiratory failure, which leads to death. The Iraqi regime tried hard to hide the size of the amounts of stored V X from the United Nations inspectors. And produced about four tons of material V X between 1988 and 1990. In 1998, UN inspectors discovered evidence of the presence of VX in the Iraqi missile warheads.
– Chemical weapons bilateral double: be interested by Israel since its discovery, which consists of separate factors , their union be together only when use it and will be a mix of deadly qualities , finally America has supplied Israel with this weapon.
-Gas of Chlorine C I2: It causes irritation of the skin, and a deterioration in the bronchus and lead to death.
– Gas Alphusegin CG: leads to stop the blood circulation, blood coagulation and the occurrence of stroke and death
– Gas soman: GD and like camphor odor, and leads to the relaxation of muscles, difficulty breathing and death.
-Acid of Alhedrossianad: AC and cause shortness of breath, choking, coma and death.
– Police gases, and gases of mind such as the D .L .S medicine of hallucination and others.
-gaz :: CS is a chemical composition and has the smell of pepper, a sense of incendiary and a bite happens in the skin, cough, runny tears, and a narrow chest, dizzy with nausea accompanied by vomiting.
-Bombs of Napalm: one of the oldest chemical weapons used by Israel, and napalm is a mixture of oil material and some salts of ammonium, such as oleic acid, palmitic acid Alinvthalak acid , and mixing these materials lead to produce severe combination of combustion packed in bombs, and when it exploded , its burning components are strewn , to stick to the body of the victim, causing severe burns.
-altermiv Or Altermat: a metal composite consists of aluminum and iron oxide and other metal derivatives, a very combustion even in isolation from air.
– White alfosfor : It is very sensitive to oxygen, which ignites immediately after contact with it in the air produced a temperature of 250 ° C, resulting in a severe burning of toxic gas, and falling on the skin leads to damage it and cause blisters and crusty black bubbles.
With regard to the prevention of this weapon can say, it depends on a successful defense against chemical attacks on the early detection of the spread of chemical agents in order to take the necessary measures and to prepare the means of prevention and protection. In the case of contamination area by these factors, to imposing restrictions on movement in and out in order to carry out the duties of prevention and the necessary cleansing. Given the gravity of chemical weapons and the extent of its influence, it has made international efforts to curb its proliferation and use since late last century .The Hague city has witnessed two conferences in years 1899 and 1907 in which it was decided to prevent the use of bombs which spread suffocative gases. As the League of Nations in the period between the two world wars to examine the issue of the use of chemical agents in the war, and made decisions to prohibit it according to the Geneva Convention in 1925, and the Conference on Disarmament, 1932 to 1934. And the international attention continued to this issue until the early eighties, and despite the fact that a large number of countries still retain a relatively large stock of these weapons, as research efforts continue to develop more of them . There is no doubt that the chemical weapons pose a threat to all of humanity, like other weapons of mass destruction. And this is exacerbated by the fact that the threat referred to by U Thant – the former secretary-general of the United Nations – where he wrote in the introduction to the book “chemical and biological weapons” issued by the United Nations in 1962 as follows:
“Almost all nations – including developing countries and small countries – can obtain chemical and biological weapons, because of the ease of preparation, some expenses low and high speed in our laboratories simple and plants. This fact makes the question of control over these weapons and very difficult to monitor. ”
And the use of chemical weapons in war goes back to ancient times, as historical sources indicate that the wars of ancient India around the year 2000 BC saw the use of toxic fumes caused “relaxation and drowsiness and yawning.” Gas was also used in the siege of “Platia” during the Peloponnesian War, and works of “Tosedides” contains a description of its use and its effects.
the use of chemical weapons was stabilized through the ages. However, the twentieth century saw the beginning of an important development in the mastery and expand the extent of their impact, and in the wake of the First World War , it was spread the use of toxic gases that resorted to by all participated parties . The chemical weapons led to the occurrence of between $ 800 thousand and a million injured in the ranks of Russia, France, England, Germany and US forces during that war .and despite developments that doubled its chemical weapons capabilities, they were not used during World War II. However, the United States used during the Vietnam War, particularly in the area of crop sabotage and destruction of forests.
Napoleon was in all wars was threw dead animals from plague and anthrax in the drinking water to get rid of his enemies. During the First World War and Britain, put cholera bacteria in drinking water in Italy due to its alliance with Germany, while Germany was to drop a biological bombs loaded with plague over London. Egypt was in 1946 have been exposed to the epidemic cholera when Zionist gangs placed cholera bacteria in the waters of the Nile. And the Israeli Mossad, carried out a similar process in the wake of the 1967 war and called the cholera epidemic of summer diseases. Japan was in its war against Manchuria and China since 1931 to drop fleas carrying the plague and cholera from the aircraft, along with wheat, which the mice are coming to it to spread epidemics there . It reaped thousands of soldiers and civilians. Japan continued to drop these deadly germs until the end of World War II. In March 16-171988 the Iraqi Army used nerve gas in a chemical attack on the town of Halabja, and more than 5,000 civilians were killed and injured another 7000-10000 civilians, mostly women and children, and thousands of the town’s residents died in the year that followed from health complications, diseases and congenital defects.
And in July 2013 the Syrian opposition accused the Syrian government forces to lay down a chemical weapon of sarin gas on the Gota area ” Damascus Gota” led to the deaths of at least 1,500 people and injured hundreds in the incident contributed to ignite the world public opinion and US threats to bomb Syria, while was not known who was responsible yet for these attacks . On 21 August 2013, it was used nerve gas on a long-Damascus Gota including cities Zamalka and Kfrbtna and Moadamieh and Jobar and Arbin and Sakba and pivotal and Harasta and Ain Tarma. Resulting in the injury of at least 1,300 civilians, including women and children and more than 6,000 injured by hospitals and medical statistics in the region .
The confrontation between state regulation and opponents are no longer traditional confrontations, but turned out to be a smart a war in which this organization used everything available from technical and technical capabilities in the councils of the Organization administration , including chemical weapons, which can enhance the ability of combat. It is known about the organization of the state that he reproduces Qaeda experiments and experiences from one country to another and what is happening in Libya from the control of these groups on the arsenal of weapons of the former Gaddafi regime raises a lot of concerns about the use of chemical weapons against his opponents, especially that Libya is open to the desert and there is no natural inhibitors, hinder target This group from the threat of neighboring countries and the region as it did in Iraq and in Muthanna facility in Syria.
the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq announced on March 142 015 that it had evidence that “the organization of the Islamic State had used a chemical weapon ” Chlorine gas against the Kurdish peshmerga forces, but (Peter Saczak), spokesman for the Organization of Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, based in the Netherlands said we have not received a request from Iraq to investigate allegations of the use of chemical weapons in Iraq and can not OPCW make averification of the validity of these allegations immediately. Other reports dealt with Iraqi media reported the use of “Daash” chlorine in explosive devices planted on the edges of the main roads of Tikrit in Salah al-Din during the Battle of the restoration of the city of Salah al-Din , which was launched on the first of March 2015.
It was revealed in mid-February 2015 by a Libyan military sources that extremist militias in the country took over a chemical weapons from the remnants of the former regime stores, and said it is in the desert and this something to fear that the up-lethal materials to reach to the Daash organization . The remaining chemical arsenal of the former regime was stationed in “Jufrah “In the south-east of Tripoli of RwaghValley” “actually under the control of one of the Misrata brigades as well as in” militaryTmanhunt “base and areas” Suknh “and” Hun “near” Dan . ” The destruction of chemical weapons arsenal operations have been launched by a special team of the United Nations since 2004. The inspection teams revealed the existence of a thousand cubic tons of chemical arsenal and 20 cubic tons of mustard and thousands of bombs stuffed with mustard and sulfur . Scene of “jihad” in Libya restores scene in Iraq, after dominating the organization Daash 2014 on the MSE after the invasion to the city of Mosul and other Iraqi cities as it tried at the same time the reproduction experience of Iraq and Syria inside Libya.
In the case of Iraq , the possession of state regulation of chemical weapons and the threat of use it , so it is very difficult to predict of it , they rely on the element of shock or horror, and there is a field indicators suggest that this organization owned or in the way to acquire this type of weapon :
1- Daash took over important sites containing material can be used in the manufacture of chemical weapons, and the possibility of their use in the threat to national security, which requires preparedness and readiness and deal seriously and in a scientific and thoughtful ways to counter such threats.
2-existence of elements of experts and technicians specialized in dealing with chemical weapons from members of the military industrialization in the former Iraqi regime working in the ranks of Daash, which may lead to the employment of their expertise in the manufacture of chemical weapons.
3-availability of chemical equations contribute to the arms industry on websites and specialized scientific references; making it easier to use the process by Daash in the arms industry and downloaded chemicals; to target security forces and vital institutions.
III Indicators of potential chemical threats
1- Daash take over material used in the manufacture of chemical weapons which were found in the following locations:
A: Muthanna site stores that contain toxic materials facility. The Daily Telegraph newspaper the English edition of the day June 20, 2014, addressed that “Daash” took control of the remaining of the Ministry of Science and Technology in the Thar Thar area of western city of Samarra, which restored by Iraqi forces later on . Damien McElroy said in an article on the (Daily Telegraph) English edition on June 19, 2014, that “Daash” attacked Muthanna facility known chemical arsenal and was able to get to my store facility, which includes damaged chemicals .Although chemical weapons arsenal ineffective, but still it represents a concern to the West and to Washington, and there are fears of a re-use of toxic chemicals in its confrontation with Iraqi forces or against Western targets inside or outside Iraq. The MSE was belonging to the MIC pre-2003 under the supervision of the Military Industrialization system. It is noteworthy that the MSE is the largest facilities-making chemicals since the beginning of the eighties of the last century until the beginning of the mid-nineties which dismantled by the international inspection teams .The facility is approximately 20 kilometers south of the city SAMARRA composed of shells and artillery rockets aerial bombs, and the heads of Scud missiles, with chemicals stored at the facility in underground hideouts, built of thick reinforced concrete and covered with a layer of sandy clay with a height of three meters and capacity of the main storage room was with up to 10,800 cubic meters. In this context, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said on several occasions, that there is information about training of fighters in Afghanistan on chemical use and Daash and Al- nurse front are planning to transfer toxic substances to Iraq to carry out terrorist acts there and the news recently emerged on the use of some areas of Afghanistan, which not under the control of the Kabul government, to train fighters by third countries in order to send them to fight against the Syrian regime, in addition to training on the use of toxic substances.
B: Sites at Mosul University and the College of Agriculture in Mosul contain chemicals used for purposes of scientific research.
C : Petrochemical company located in the Jorf Al- Naser district , Al- Janabiyeen area containing stacks , ammunition and chemical materials.
D: Military base of Syrian Army in the village of Ras al-Ain in which the Al-Nusra Front took over chemicals which were transferred to the city of Mosul in Iraq.
E: Chemical materials in Qaqaa facility, one of the former military manufacturing facilities.
F: phosphate plant of Al-Qaim near the Iraqi-Syrian border , when insurgents seized 169 tons of tri-phosphate fertilizer and 3135 tons of compound fertilizer, and an engineer of the people of Mosul was appointed , holds a master’s degree in chemical as manager of the plant.
G : Stores of Ministry of Agriculture in Hawija district contains stocks of the materials of the super phosphate and triple super and some agricultural pesticides, which its quantity are estimated of 300 tonnes.
H : Seizing of some stores and chlorine warehouses and projects of drinking water refinement in the provinces of Nineveh and Salahuddin, Anbar, Diyala,
2 : Discovery of two plants are used to make experments of chemical weapons composition by one of Daash cells, which it was arrested and had intended to launch an attack with chemical weapons in the capital Baghdad .
3-The Baghdad Operations Command discovered on January 31 2014 a stock of chemicals, rockets and explosive devices in southern Baghdad used by al Daash in their attacks.
4-Daash store a large amount of modified missiles containing toxic substances in the warehouse to Tal Afar district , and introduced a diverse amount of rockets to Baaj and Sinjar districts .
IV Purpose of acquisition of a chemical weapon by the State regulation :
This purpose is centered to the use of this weapon in resolving strategic battles, or with large implications goals through the following :
1-Breakthrough the military headquarters: it is likely Daash to use chemical weapons to breakthrough the fortified headquarters of the army and the popular crowd which is hard to reach it with conventional weapons, but through the use of toxic gases to cause suffocation and block of the vision, leading to neutralize their movement and weaken their ability to deal with the elements of attack, as it happened in Saqlawiyah area.
2- To lift the military siege: the use of chemical weapon to lift the siege on its elements when in an area surrounded by the security services, through the use of it in the entrances of the area where its elements are trapped; to find a hole through which to escape or infiltration of their elements.
3-poisoning water: Daash may resort to poison the stations of the water filter and reservoirs by using the toxic chemical gas , to bring about a state of chaos and panic in the hearts of Iraqis.
4-targeted hostile areas : Daash is likely seeks to use chemicals to target the people of opposing areas such as: areas where fighters of tribes exist, or the popular crowd, or Yezidis, Kurds and others, in order to break their resolve in the face of their elements , and create a state of inaction when the people of these areas seek to participate in the security services to eliminate Daash.
5-targeting vital installations: Daash may resort to target vital installations and institutions of strategic effect such as : targeting International Baghdad Airport or ministries or the green zone … and others. Which leads to the reluctance of countries and companies and foreign investors from entering Iraq.
Fifthly – The effect of the use of chemical weapons on the national security
There is no doubt that the possession of state regulation of chemical weapons have negative effects on the state of Iraqi society and can be summarized as follows:
1- Undermine the determination of the armed forces fighters and impeding their advance , as a result of the use of chemical weapons in some of the previous battles, and fears for use in the upcoming military operations. This requires taking the necessary precautions in the event of advance of security services.
2-terrorism of community and intimidating: the result of psychological warfare used by means of the media to amplify Daash in chemical potential and its ability to reach any goal they choose. Thus creating a state of fear and panic in the hearts of citizens.
3-Embarrass the government of Haider al-Abadi and obstruction of plans in the elimination of al Daash, and the possibility of exploiting the chemical attacks by opponents of political process to mislead the local and international public opinion that the perpetrators of chemical attacks are Iraqi forces or the popular crowd and forces supporting the government, as happened with the Syrian government, which It leads to provoke the wrath of some of their misled citizens , and put the country in a difficult position in front of the international community.
4-threatening health security in Iraq; as a result of the prevalence of cancer, and the increase in congenital malformations posed by chemical weapons and materials, leading to the complexity of the health situation by the high number of patients and the need to provide the necessary care for them.
5. Damage to livestock and agricultural wealth in Iraq; the fact that chemical weapons lead to serious pollution in the soil and plants; which negatively affects the possibility of investment in these two suppliers in supplying the Iraqi economy, and achieve the principle of diversity of sources.
6. Arrival of foreign chemists and experts belonging to the organization Daash to FPC in the Qaem district , working on chemical formulations and they entering it to the missiles and projectiles and explosives, and worked to isolate the amount of phosphate block within the company and prevented the entry of employees to the company and the surrounding areas.
7- Daash organization devoted Mishraq sulfur plant in Mosul to manufacture missiles carrying chemical substances.
8-forcing some teaching specialists from the University of Mosul in the chemical sciences to work with Daash, which confirms their quest in the manufacturing of chemical weapons that target Iraqi security .
9. The Daash organization used the chlorine gas in Saqlawiyah area after trapping more than 400 troops and a lot of them were killed because of suffocation, and used it in Dhuluiya and Arabs “Kubani” against the Kurdish militants in Syria, and in the October 31 / October of this year Katyusha “rocket , Local made ,”carrying toxic gases targeted military units stationed in the Spyker base resulted in injuring 14 fighter in a state of suffocation. And this indicates the possibility to use in more effective way , if they were able to manufacture it in a large quantities and variety in the use .
In summery , the possession of chemical weapon by the state organization and its use in future battles inaugurates the Iraqi and Syrian Scene and regional extremely black, unless they are dealing with this qualitative development seriously by all regional and international concerned in the stability and prosperity of the Middle East.

Rawabet Research and Strategic Studies Center

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